Tuesday, December 24, 2013

Glucose Metabolism

Part A

Glucose is used to produce high-energy ATP in a cell.
Part B

The three phosphate groups in an ATP molecule carry negative charges that strongly repel each other and give ATP a large amount of potential energy.
Part C

Fermentation is an alternate pathway used when oxygen levels are low.
Part D

Glycolysis can take place in the absence of oxygen; its product, pyruvate, enters the cellular respiration pathway or undergoes fermentation depending on the availability of oxygen.
Part E

All of the carbon atoms in glucose are incorporated into carbon dioxide: Two molecules are formed as pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA, and four molecules are formed during the Krebs cycle.
Part F

The electrons lose energy as they move down the chain, and this energy is used to create a proton gradient that drives the synthesis of ATP.
Part G

Electron transport and chemiosmosis (oxidative phosphorylation) can yield around 26 molecules of ATP.
Part H

Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm, whereas the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain, which generate the largest amounts of ATP during cellular respiration, take place in the mitochondria.

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